The Annotated Bushido
IS BUSHIDO STILL ALIVE?
Or has Western civilization, in its march through the land, already wiped out every trace of its ancient discipline? [1905 start: Has Western civilization, in its march through the land, already wiped out every trace of its ancient discipline?]
It were a sad thing if a nation's soul could die so fast. That were a poor soul that could succumb so easily to extraneous influences. [1905: new paragraph] The aggregate of psychological elements which constitute a national character, is as tenacious as the "irreducible elements of species, of the fins of fish, of the beak of the bird, of the tooth of the carnivorous animal." In his recent book, full of shallow asseverations and brilliant generalizations, M. LeBon says, "The discoveries due to the intelligence are the common patrimony of humanity; qualities or defects of character constitute the exclusive patrimony of each people, they [1905: people: they] are the firm rock which the waters must wash day by day for centuries, before they can wear away even its external asperities." These are strong words and would be highly worth pondering over, provided there were qualities and defects of character which constitute the exclusive patrimony of each people. Schematizing theories of this sort had been advanced long before LeBon began to write his book, and they were exploded long ago by Theodor Waitz and Hugh Murray. In studying the various virtues instilled by Bushido, we have drawn upon European sources for comparison and illustration, [1905: illustrations,] and we have seen that no one quality of character was its exclusive patrimony. It is true the aggregate of moral qualities presents a quite unique aspect. It is this aggregate which Emerson names a "compound result into which every great force enters as an ingredient." But, instead of making it as LeBon does [1905 But, instead of making it, as LeBon does,] an exclusive patrimony of a race or people, the Concord philosopher calls it "an element which unites the most forcible persons of every country; makes them intelligible and agreeable to each other; and is somewhat so precise that it is at once felt if an individual lack the Masonic sign."
The character which Bushido stamped on our nation and on the samurai in particular, cannot be said to form "an irreducible element of species," but nevertheless as to the vitality which it retains there is no doubt. Were Bushido a mere physical force, the momentum it has gained in the last seven hundred years could not stop so suddenly [1905: so abruptly]. Were it transmitted only by heredity, its influence must be immensely widespread. Just think, as M. Cheysson, a French economist, has calculated, that supposing [1905: that, supposing] there be three generations in a century, "each of us would have in his veins the blood of at least twenty millions of the people living in the year 1000 A.D." The merest peasant that grubs the soil, "bowed by the weight of centuries," has in his veins the blood of ages, and is thus a brother to us as much as "to the ox."
An unconscious and irresistible power, Bushido has been moving the nation and individuals. It was an honest confession of the race when Yoshida Shoyen, [1905: Yoshida Shôin,] one of the most brilliant pioneers of Modern Japan, wrote on the eve of his execution the following stanza:
Full well I knew this course must end in death;
It was Yamato spirit urged me on
To dare whate'er betide.
"Full well I knew this course must end in death;
It was Yamato spirit urged me on
To dare whate'er betide."]
Unformulated, Bushido was and still is the animating spirit of our country. [1905: is the animating spirit, the motor force of our country.]
Mr. Ransome says that "there are three distinct Japans in existence side by side to-day,--the old, which has not wholly died out; the new, hardly yet born except in spirit; and the transition, passing now through its most critical throes." While this is very true in most respects, and particularly as regards tangible and concrete institutions, the statement, as applied to fundamental ethical notions, requires some modification; for Bushido, the maker and product of Old Japan, is still the guiding principle of the transition and will prove the formative force of the new era.
The great statesmen who steered the ship of our state through the hurricane of the Restoration and the whirlpool of national rejuvenation, were men who knew no other moral teaching than the Precepts of Knighthood. Some writers have lately tried to prove that the Christian missionaries contributed an appreciable quota to the making of New Japan. I would fain render honor to whom honor is due: but [1905: due; but] this honor can hardly [1905: can as yet hardly] be accorded to the good missionaries. More fitting it will be to their profession to stick to the scriptural injunction of preferring one another in honor, than to advance a claim iu [1905: in] which they have no proofs to back them. For myself, I believe that Christian missionaries have done and will do [1905: I believe that Christian missionaries are doing] great things for Japan--in the domain of education, and especially of moral education. [1905: and especially of moral education:--only, the mysterious though not the less certain working of the Spirit is still hidden in divine secrecy.] Whatever else they do [1905: Whatever they do] will be of an indirect kind [1905: is still of indirect effect]. No, as yet Christian missions have effected but little visible in moulding the character of New Japan. No, it was Bushido, pure and simple, that urged us on for weal or woe. Open the biographies of the makers of Modern Japan--of Sakuma, of Saigo, of Okubo, of Kido, not to mention the reminiscences of living men such as Ito, Okuma, Itagaki, etc. [1905: Itagaki, etc.,]--and you will find that it was under the impetus of samuraihood that they thought and wrought. When Mr. Henry Norman declared, after his study and observation of the Far East, that only the respect in which Japan differed from other oriental despotisms lay in "the ruling influence among her people of the strictest, loftiest, and the most punctilious codes of honor that man has ever devised," he touched the main spring which has made new Japan what she is, and which will make her what she is destined to be.
The transformation of Japan is a fact patent to the whole world. In a work of such magnitude various motives naturally entered; but if one were to name the principal, one would not hesitate to name Bushido. When we opened the whole country to foreign trade, when we introduced the latest improvements in every department of life, when we began to study Western politics and sciences, our guiding motive was not the development of our physical resources and the increase of wealth; much less was it a blind imitation of Western customs. The sense of honor which cannot bear being looked down upon as an inferior power,--that was the strongest of motives. Pecuniary or industrial motives were awakened later in the process of transformation.
[1905 replacement of previous paragraph:
The transformation of Japan is a fact patent to the whole world. In a work of such magnitude various motives naturally entered; but if one were to name the principal, one would not hesitate to name Bushido. When we opened the whole country to foreign trade, when we introduced the latest improvements in every department of life, when we began to study Western politics and sciences, our guiding motive was not the development of our physical resources and the increase of wealth; much less was it a blind imitation of Western customs.
A close observer of oriental institutions and peoples has written:
"We are told every day how Europe has influenced Japan, and forget that the change in those islands was entirely self-generated, that Europeans did not teach Japan, but that Japan of herself chose to learn from Europe methods of organization, civil and military, which have so far proved successful. She imported European mechanical science, as the Turks years before imported European artillery. That is not exactly influence," continues Mr. Townsend, "unless, indeed, England is influenced by purchasing tea in China. Where is the European apostle," asks our author, "or philosopher or statesman or agitator, who has re-made Japan?"
Mr. Townsend has well perceived that the spring of action which brought about the changes in Japan lay entirely within our own selves; and if he had only probed into our psychology, his keen powers of observation would easily have convinced him that that spring was no other than Bushido. The sense of honor which cannot bear being looked down upon as an inferior power,--that was the strongest of motives. Pecuniary or industrial considerations were awakened later in the process of transformation.]
The influence of Bushido is still so palpable that he who runs may read. A glimpse into Japanese life will make it manifest. Read Hearn, the most eloquent and truthful interpreter of the Japanese mind, and you see the working of that mind to be an example of the working of Bushido. The universal politeness of the people, which is the legacy of knightly ways, is too well known to be repeated anew. The physical endurance, fortitude and bravery that "the little Jap" possesses, were sufficiently proved in the Chino-Japanese war. "Is there any nation more loyal and patriotic?" is a question asked by many; and for the proud answer, "There is not," we must thank the Precepts of Knighthood.
On the other hand, it is fair to recognize that for the very faults and defects of our character, Bushido is largely responsible. Our lack of abstruse philosophy--while some of our young men have already gained international reputation in scientific researches, not one has achieved anything in philosophical lines--is traceable to the neglect of metaphysical training under Bushido's regimen of education. Our sense of honor is responsible for our exaggerated sensitiveness and touchiness; and if there is the conceit in us with which some foreigners charge us, that, too, is a pathological outcome of honor.
Have you seen in your tour of Japan many a young man with unkempt hair, dressed in shabbiest garb, carrying in his hand a large cane or a book, stalking about the streets with an air of utter indifference to mundane things? He is the shosei (student), [1905: shoséi (student),] to whom the earth is too small and the Heavens [1905: heavens] are not high enough. He has his own theories of the universe and of life. He dwells in castles of air and feeds on ethereal words of wisdom. In his eyes beams the fire of ambition: [1905: the fire of ambition;] his mind is athirst for knowledge. Penury is only a stimulus to drive him onward; worldly goods are to him [1905: are in his sight] shackles to his character. He is the repository of Loyalty and Patriotism [1905: loyalty and patriotism]. He is the self-imposed guardian of national honor. With all his virtues and his faults, he is the last fragment of Bushido.
Deep-rooted and powerful as is still the effect of Bushido, I have said that it is an unconscious and mute influence. The heart of the people responds, without knowing the reason why, to any appeal made to what it has inherited.
The same moral idea expressed in a newly translated term and in an old Bushido term has a vastly different degree of efficacy. [1905 joins this paragraph with the previous paragraph to start out as follows: Deep-rooted and powerful as is still the effect of Bushido, I have said that it is an unconscious and mute influence. The heart of the people responds, without knowing the reason why, to any appeal made to what it has inherited, and hence the same moral idea expressed in a newly translated term and in an old Bushido term, has a vastly different degree of efficacy.] A backsliding Christian, whom no pastoral persuasion could help from downward tendency, was reverted from his course by an appeal made to his loyalty, the fidelity he once swore to his Master. The word "Loyalty" revived all the noble sentiments that were permitted to grow lukewarm. A band of [1905: A party of] unruly youths engaged in a long continued [1905: long-continued] "students' strike" in a college, on account of their dissatisfaction with a certain teacher, disbanded at two simple questions put by the Director,--"Is your professor a strong [1905: a worthy] character? If so, you ought to respect him and keep him in the school. Is he weak? If so, it is not manly to push a falling man." The scientific incapacity of the professor, which was the beginning of the trouble, dwindled into insignificance in comparison with the moral issues hinted at. By arousing the sentiments nurtured by Bushido, moral renovation of great magnitude can be accomplished.
One cause of the failure of mission work is that most of the missionaries are grossly ignorant of our history--"What do we care for heathen records?" some say--and consequently estrange their religion from the habits of thought we and our forefathers have been accustomed to for centuries past. Christianity, they claim, is a new religion, whereas, to my mind, it is an "old, old story," which, if presented in intelligible words,--that is to say, if expressed in the vocabulary familiar in the moral development of a people--will find easy lodgment in their hearts, irrespective of race or nationality. Christianity in its American or English form--with more of Anglo-Saxon freaks and fancies than grace and purity of its founder--is a poor scion to graft on Bushido stock. Should the propagator of the new faith uproot the entire stock, root and branches, and plant the seeds of the Gospel on the ravaged soil? Such a heroic process may be possible--in Hawaii, where, it is alleged, the church militant had complete success in amassing spoils of wealth itself, and in annihilating the aboriginal race: such a process is most decidedly impossible in Japan--nay, it is a process which Jesus himself would never have adopted in founding his kingdom on earth.
[1905 replacement of previous paragraph:
One cause of the failure of mission work is that most of the missionaries are grossly ignorant of our history--"What do we care for heathen records?" some say--and consequently estrange their religion from the habits of thought we and our forefathers have been accustomed to for centuries past. Mocking a nation's history?--as though the career of any people--even of the lowest African savages possessing no record--were not a page in the general history of mankind, written by the hand of God Himself. The very lost races are a palimpsest to be deciphered by a seeing eye. To a philosophic and pious mind the races themselves are marks of Divine chirography clearly traced in black and white as on their skin; and if this simile holds good, the yellow race forms a precious page inscribed in hieroglyphics of gold! Ignoring the past career of a people, missionaries claim that Christianity is a new religion, whereas, to my mind, it is an "old, old story," which, if presented in intelligible words,--that is to say, if expressed in the vocabulary familiar in the moral development of a people--will find easy lodgment in their hearts, irrespective of race or nationality. Christianity in its American or English form--with more of Anglo-Saxon freaks and fancies than grace and purity of its Founder--is a poor scion to graft on Bushido stock. Should the propagator of the new faith uproot the entire stock, root, and branches, and plant the seeds of the Gospel on the ravaged soil? Such a heroic process may be possible--in Hawaii, where, it is alleged, the church militant had complete success in amassing spoils of wealth itself, and in annihilating the aboriginal race; such a process is most decidedly impossible in Japan--nay, it is a process which Jesus Himself would never have adopted in founding His kingdom on earth.
It behooves us to take more to heart the following words of a saintly man, devout Christian and profound scholar:
"Men have divided the world into heathen and Christian, without considering how much good may have been hidden in the one or how much evil may have been mingled with the other. They have compared the best part of themselves with the worst of their neighbors, the ideal of Christianity with the corruption of Greece or the East. They have not aimed at impartiality, but have been contented to accumulate all that could be said in praise of their own, and in dispraise of other forms of religion."]
But, whatever may be the error committed by individuals, there is little doubt that the fundamental principle of the religion they profess is a power which we must take into account in reckoning [1905: But, whatever may be the error committed by individuals, there is little doubt that the fundamental principle of the religion they profess is a power which we must take into account in reckoning the future of Bushido, whose days seem to be already numbered. Ominous signs are in the air that betoken its future. Not only signs, but redoubtable forces are at work to threaten it.] << continue >>
Following on the historical summary of the previous chapter, Nitobe turns here to the influence of bushidō in contemporary (post-Perry) Japan.
The Psychology of Peoples, p. 33. [Nitobe's note] Gustave LeBon (1841-1931) was a French social psychologist who wrote influentially on the topic of crowd psychology. His Les Lois psychologiques de l'évolution des peuples was published in 1894; an English translation, available from the Internet Archive, appeared in 1898. Nitobe has reversed the original order of the two quotations.
Theodor Waitz (1821-1864) was a German psychologist and anthropologist whose chief work was the six-volume Die Anthropologie der Naturvölker (The Anthropology of Primitive Peoples), the first volume of which was edited and translated into English in 1863 as Introduction to Anthropology.
Hugh Murray (1779-1846) was a prolific Scottish geographer whose writings dealt with such locations as Africa, America, and Asia. Works include Enquiries Historical and Moral: Respecting the Character of Nations, and the Progress of Society (1808) and Encyclopaedia of Geography (1834). Murray also edited an 1844 edition of The Travels of Marco Polo.
A reference to the various gestures and handshakes used by Freemasons to identify fellow members.
Jean Jacques Emile Cheysson (1836-1910) was a French engineer and economist who held a number of academic and administrative posts. He developed a method called "geometric statistics" that attempted to integrate statistics, geometry, and economic theory. The source of the quotation has not been identified.
Nitobe is quoting from the 1898 poem "The Man with the Hoe" by the American poet Edwin Markham (1852-1940). The poem begins as follows:
Bowed by the weight of centuries he leans
Upon his hoe and gazes on the ground,
The emptiness of ages in his face,
And on his back the burden of the world.
Who made him dead to rapture and despair,
A thing that grieves not and that never hopes.
Stolid and stunned, a brother to the ox?
Yoshida Shōin (1830-1859) was a samurai from the Chōshū domain in present-day Yamaguchi Prefecture. He favored adopting Western scientific methods as a means of resisting Western influence, and famously attempted to stow away on one of Matthew Perry's "black ships" in 1854. He taught at the Shōka Sonjuku, his private school in his hometown of Hagi, where students included such later Meiji leaders as Itō Hirobumi (1841-1909), Takasugi Shinsaku (1839-1867), and Yamagata Aritomo (1838-1922). Yoshida was executed after plotting the assassination of the shogun's representative in Kyoto.
Nitobe appears to have confused the waka quoted here with a later poem -- also mentioning Yamatodamashii -- that is said to be Yoshida's farewell verse. The poem quoted here (kakusureba / kakunarumono to / shirinagara / yamu ni yamarenu / Yamatodamashii) was in fact composed at Sengakuji Temple in 1854, as Yoshida was being transported back to Edo after his ill-fated stowaway attempt. Yoshida's actual farewell poem, as recorded in Ryūkonroku (Record of an Enduring Spirit) -- Yoshida's last testament -- reads as follows: mi wa taoi / Musashi no nobe ni / kuchinu tomo / todome okamashi / Yamatodamashii (Even if my body / on the fields of Musashi / should decay, / my Japanese soul / will live on forever.).
(James) Stafford Ransome (1860-1931), a correspondent for the British journal The Engineer and other publications, published Japan in Transition: A Comparative Study of the Progress, Policy, and Methods of the Japanese Since Their War with China in 1899. The quotation comes from the beginning of the book's "Introduction."
The Meiji Restoration of 1868.
Dennis: Christian Missions and Social Progress, Vol. I, p. 32, Vol. II, 70, etc. [Nitobe's note]
Dennis: Christian Missions and Social Progress, vol. i., p. 32, vol. ii., 70, etc.]
Robert E. Speer (1867-1947) was an American religious leader who served on the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church. Missions and Politics in Asia (available from the Internet Archive) was published in 1898.
James S. Dennis (1842-1914) was a Presbyterian minister who served as a missionary in Syria. Christian Missions and Social Progress; A Sociological Study of Foreign Missions (also available from the Internet Archive) was published in 1897.
The seven men whose names are listed here are all considered important for their contributions to the Meiji Restoration and the formation of a modern Japanese state. Their full names are Sakuma Shōzan (1811-1864), Saigō Takamori (1827-1877), Ōkubo Toshimichi (1830-1878), Kido Takayoshi (1833-1877), Itō Hirobumi (1841-1909), Ōkuma Shigenobu (1838-1922), and Itagaki Taisuke (1837-1919).
The Far East, p. 375. [Nitobe's note, 1905] Henry Norman (1858-1939) was a British journalist and politician whose books included The Real Japan (1892) and The Peoples and Politics of the Far East (1895). The quotation comes from Chapter XXIV ("The Japan of To-day") in the latter; Nitobe places the footnote number at the end of the quotation.
Meredith Townsend, Asia and Europe, p. 28. [Nitobe's note, 1905] Meredith Townsend (1831-1911) was an English journalist who co-edited The Spectator magazine. He first published Asia and Europe in 1901; the quotation comes from the 1904 American edition, which added observations about Japan. Nitobe places the footnote number at the end of the quotation itself.
Lafcadio Hearn (1850-1904) is often considered by the Japanese themselves to be the foremost interpreter of their culture to the West during the Meiji period. He was naturalized under the name Koizumi Yakumo.
Among other works on the subject, read Eastlake and Yamada on "Heroic Japan," and Diosy on "The New Far East." [Nitobe's note]
F. Warrington Eastlake (1858-1905) and Yamada Yoshi-aki (dates unknown) published their Heroic Japan: A History of the War between China & Japan in 1897. Satō Masahiro, in his Japanese translation of Bushido (p. 232), identifies Yamada as the Methodist minister Yamada Toranosuke (1861-1928), but the introduction to Heroic Japan uses the name "Yamada Yoshi-aki," and the same author (identified in the introduction as president of the Japan Chautauqnan Association and whose name in Japanese is written 山田徳明), is listed in the National Diet Library as the author/editor of this and another book .
Arthur Doisy (1856-1923) -- the correct spelling -- was the founder of the Japan Society of London; his The New Far East was published in 1899. The Sino-Japanese War took place in 1894-1895.
The two incidents mentioned here by Nitobe have not been identified. Although Satō Masahiro in his Japanese translation (p. 234) refers to a strike by students at Sapporo Agricultural college in 1903, that incident came three years after publication of the first edition of Bushido, so it can hardly be the same one.
Jowett, Sermons on Faith and Doctrine, ii. [Nitobe's note, 1905] Benjamin Jowett (1817-1893) was a British classical scholar and theologian known for his translations of Plato. Sermons on Faith and Doctrine was published posthumously in 1901; the title of Chapter II, the text of a sermon preached in 1877, is "Greek and Oriental Religions." Nitobe places the footnote number at the end of the quotation itself.