The Annotated Bushido


Summary / Notes


Chapter XII


of which (the former known as hara-kiri and the latter as kataki-uchi), many foreign writers have treated more or less fully. [1905 start: Of these two institutions (the former known as hara-kiri and the latter as kataki-uchi), many foreign writers have treated more or less fully.]

To begin with suicide, let me state that I confine my observations only to seppuku or kappuku, popularly known as hara-kiri--which means self-immolation by disembowelment. "Ripping the abdomen? How absurd!"--so cry those to whom the name is new; but in our minds it is associated [1905: so cry those to whom the name is new. Absurdly odd as it may sound at first to foreign ears, it can not be so very foreign to students of Shakespeare, who puts these words in Brutus' mouth--"Thy [Caesar's] spirit walks abroad and turns our swords into our proper entrails." Listen to a modern English poet who, in his Light of Asia, speaks of a sword piercing the bowels of a queen;--none blames him for bad English or breach of modesty. Or, to take still another example, look at Guercino's painting of Cato's death in the Palazzo Rossa, in Genoa. Whoever has read the swan-song which Addison makes Cato sing, will not jeer at the sword half-buried in his abdomen. In our minds this mode of death is associated] with instances of noblest deeds and of most touching pathos, so that nothing repugnant, much less ludicrous, mars our conception of it. So wonderful is the transforming power of virtue, of greatness, of tenderness, that the vilest form of death assumes a sublimity and becomes a symbol of new life, or else--the sign which Constantine beheld would not conquer the world!

Not for extraneous associations only does seppuku lose in our mind any taint of absurdity; for the choice of this particular part of the body to operate upon, was based on an old anatomical belief as to the seat of the soul and of the affections. When Moses wrote of Joseph's "bowels yearning upon his brother," or David prayed the Lord not to forget his bowels, or when Isaiah, Jeremiah, and other inspired men of old spoke of the "sounding" or the "troubling" of bowels, they all and each endorsed the belief prevalent among the Japanese that in the abdomen was enshrined the soul. The Semites habitually spoke of the liver and kidneys and surrounding fat as the seat of emotion and of life. The term "hara" was more comprehensive than the Greek phren or thumos, and the Japanese and Hellenese alike thought the spirit of man to dwell somewhere in that region. Such a notion is by no means confined to the peoples of antiquity. The French, in spite of the theory propounded by one of their most distinguished philosophers, Descartes, that the soul is located in the pineal gland, still insist in using the term ventre in a sense which, if anatomically too vague, is nevertheless physiologically significant. Similarly, entrailles stands in their language for affection and compassion. Nor is such belief mere superstition, being more scientific than the general idea of making the heart the centre of the feelings. Without asking a friar, the Japanese knew better than Romeo "in what vile part of this anatomy one's name did lodge." Modern neurologists speak of the abdominal and pelvic brains, denoting thereby sympathetic nerve centres in those parts which are strongly affected by any psychical action. This view of mental physiology once admitted, the syllogism of seppuku is easy to construct. "I will open the seat of my soul and show you how it fares with it. See for yourself whether it is polluted or clean."

I do not wish to be understood as asserting religious or even moral justification of suicide, but the high estimate placed upon honor was ample excuse with many for taking one's own life. How many acquiesced in the sentiment expressed by Garth,

"When honor's lost, 'tis [1905: 't is] a relief to die;

Death's but a sure retreat from infamy,"

and have smilingly surrendered their souls to oblivion! Death involving a question of honor, was accepted in Bushido as a key to the solution of many complex problems, so that to an ambitious samurai a natural departure from life seemed a rather tame affair and a consummation not devoutly to be wished for. I dare say that many good Christians, if only they are honest enough, will confess the fascination of, if not positive admiration for, the sublime composure with which Cato, Brutus, Petronius and [1905: Cato, Brutus, Petronius, and] a host of other ancient worthies, terminated [1905: other ancient worthies terminated] their own earthly existence. Is it too bold to hint that the death of the first of the philosophers was partly suicidal? When we are told so minutely by his pupils how their master willingly submitted to the mandate of the state--which he knew was morally mistaken--in spite of the possibilities of escape, and how he took up the cup of hemlock in his own hand, even offering libation from its deadly contents, do we not discern in his [1905: discern, in his] whole proceeding and demeanor, an act of self-immolation? No physical compulsion here, as in ordinary cases of execution. True the verdict of the judges was compulsory: it said, "Thou shalt die,--and that by thy own hand." If suicide meant no more than dying by one's own hand, Socrates was a clear case of suicide. But nobody would charge him with the crime; Plato, who was averse to it, would not call his master a suicide.

Now my readers will understand that seppuku was not a mere suicidal process. It was an institution, legal and ceremonial. An invention of the middle ages, it was a process by which warriors could expiate their crimes, apologize for errors, escape from disgrace, redeem their friends, or prove their sincerity. When enforced as a legal punishment, it was practiced with due ceremony. It was a refinement of self-destruction, and none could perform it without the utmost coolness of temper and composure of demeanor, and for these reasons it was particularly befitting the profession of bushi.

Antiquarian curiosity, if nothing else, would tempt me to give here a description of this obsolete ceremonial; [1905: obsolete ceremony;] but seeing that such a description was made by a far abler writer, whose book is not much read now-a-days, [1905: nowadays,] I am tempted to make a somewhat lengthy quotation. Mitford, in his "Tales of Old Japan," after giving a translation of a treatise on seppuku from a rare Japanese manuscript, goes on to describe an instance of such an execution of which he was an eye witness:-- [1905: an eye-witness:]

"We (seven foreign representatives) were invited to follow the Japanese witness into the hondo or main hall of the temple, where the ceremony was to be performed. It was an imposing scene. A large hall with a high roof supported by dark pillars of wood. From the ceiling hung a profusion of those huge gilt lamps and ornaments peculiar to Buddhist temples. In front of the high altar, where the floor, covered with beautiful white mats, is raised some three or four inches from the ground, was laid a rug of scarlet felt. Tall candles placed at regular intervals gave out a dim mysterious light, just sufficient to let all the proceedings be seen. The seven Japanese took their places on the left of the raised floor, the seven foreigners on the right. No other person was present.

"After the interval of a few minutes of anxious suspense, Taki Zenzaburo, a stalwart man thirty-two years of age, with a noble air, walked into the hall attired in his dress of ceremony, with the peculiar hempen-cloth wings which are worn on great occasions. He was accompanied by a kaishaku and three officers, who wore the jimbaori or war surcoat with gold tissue facings. The word kaishaku, it should be observed, is one to which our word executioner is no equivalent term. The office is that of a gentleman: [1905: gentleman;] in many cases it is performed by a kinsman or friend of the condemned, and the relation between them is rather that of principal and second than that of victim and executioner. In this instance the kaishaku was a pupil of Taki Zenzaburo, and was selected by friends of the latter from among their own number for his skill in swordsmanship.

"With the kaishaku on his left hand, Taki Zenzaburo advanced slowly towards the Japanese witnesses, and the two bowed before them, then drawing near to the foreigners they saluted us in the same way, perhaps even with more deference; in each case the salutation was ceremoniously returned. Slowly and with great dignity the condemned man mounted on to the raised floor, prostrated himself before the high altar twice, and seated himself on the felt carpet with his back to the high altar, the kaishaku crouching on his left hand [1905: left-hand] side. One of the three attendant officers then came forward, bearing a stand of the kind used in the temple for offerings, on which, wrapped in paper, lay the wakizashi, the short sword or dirk of the Japanese, nine inches and a half in length, with a point and an edge as sharp as a razor's. This he handed, prostrating himself, to the condemned man, who received it reverently, raising it [1905: reverently raising it] to his head with both hands, and placed it in front of himself.

"After another profound obeisance, Taki Zenzaburo, in a voice which betrayed just so much emotion and hesitation as might be expected from a man who is making a painful confession, but with no sign of either in his face or manner, spoke as follows:--

"'I, and I alone, unwarrantably gave the order to fire on the foreigners at Kobe, and again as they tried to escape. For this crime I disembowel myself, and I beg you who are present to do me the honor of witnessing the act.'

"Bowing once more, the speaker allowed his upper garments to slip down to his girdle, and remained naked to the waist. Carefully, according to custom, he tucked his sleeves under his knees to prevent himself from falling backward; for a noble Japanese gentleman should die falling forwards. Deliberately, with a steady hand he took the dirk that lay before him; he looked at it wistfully, almost affectionately; for a moment he seemed to collect his thoughts for the last time, and then stabbing himself deeply below the waist in the left-hand side, he drew the dirk slowly across to his right side, and turning it in the wound, gave a slight cut upwards. During this sickeningly painful operation he never moved a muscle of his face. When he drew out the dirk, he leaned forward and stretched out his neck; an expression of pain for the first time crossed his face, but he uttered no sound. At that moment the kaishaku, who, still crouching by his side, had been keenly watching his every movement, sprang to his feet, poised his sword for a second in the air; there was a flash, a heavy, ugly thud, a crashing fall; with one blow the head had been severed from the body.

"A dead silence followed, broken only by the hideous noise of the blood throbbing out of the inert heap before us, which but a moment before had been a brave and chivalrous man. It was horrible.

"The kaishaku made a low bow, wiped his sword with a piece of paper which he had ready for the purpose, and retired from the raised floor; and the stained dirk was solemnly borne away, a bloody proof of the execution.

"The two representatives of the Mikado then left their places, and, crossing over [1905: then left their places, and crossing over] to where the foreign witnesses sat, called to us to witness that the sentence of death upon Taki Zenzaburo had been faithfully carried out. The ceremony being at an end, we left the temple."

I might multiply any number of descriptions of seppuku from literature or from the relation of eye-witnesses; but one more instance will suffice.

Two brothers, Sakon and Naiki, respectively twenty-four and seventeen years of age, made an effort to kill Iyéyasu in order to avenge their father's wrongs; but before they could enter the camp they were made prisoners. The old general admired the pluck of the youths who dared an attempt on his life and ordered that they should be allowed to die an honorable death. Their little brother Hachimaro, a mere infant of eight summers, was condemned to a similar fate, as the sentence was pronounced on all the male members of the family, and the three were taken to a monastery where it was to be executed. A physician who was present on the occasion has left us a diary, from which the following scene is translated:

"When they were all seated in a row for final despatch, Sakon turned to the youngest and said--'Go thou first, for I wish to be sure that thou doest it aright.' Upon the little one's replying that, as he had never seen seppuku performed, he would like to see his brothers do it and then he could follow them, the older brothers smiled between their tears:--'Well said, little fellow! So canst thou well boast of being our father's child.' When they had placed him between them, Sakon thrust the dagger into the left side of his own abdomen and asked--'Look brother! Dost understand now? Only, don't push the dagger too far, lest thou fall back. Lean forward, rather, and keep thy knees well composed.' Naiki did likewise and said to the boy--'Keep thine eyes open or else thou mayst look like a dying woman. If thy dagger feels anything within and thy strength fails, take courage and double thy effort to cut across.' The child looked from one to the other, and, when both had expired, he calmly half denuded himself and followed the example set him on either hand."

The glorifications [1905: glorification] of seppuku offered, naturally enough, no small temptation to its unwarranted committal. For causes entirely incompatible with reason, or for reasons entirely undeserving of death, hot headed youths [1905: hot-headed youths] rushed into it as insects fly into fire; mixed and dubious motives drove more samurai to this deed than nuns into convent gates. Life was cheap--cheap as reckoned by the popular standard of honor. The saddest feature was that honor, which was always in the agio, so to speak, was not always solid gold, but alloyed with baser metals. No one circle in the Inferno will boast of greater density of Japanese population than the seventh, to which Dante consigns all victims of self-destruction!

And yet, for a true samurai to hasten death or to court it, was alike cowardice. A typical fighter, when he lost battle after battle and was pursued from plain to hill and from bush to cavern, found himself hungry and alone in the dark hollow of a tree, his sword blunt with use, his bow broken and arrows exhausted--did not the noblest of the Romans fall upon his own sword in Phillippi [1905: Philippi] under like circumstances?--deemed it cowardly to die, but with a fortitude [1905: cowardly to die, but, with a fortitude] approaching a Christian martyr's, cheered himself with an impromptu verse:

"Come! evermore come,

Ye dread sorrows and pains!

And heap on my burden'd back;

That I not one test may lack

Of what strength in me remains!"

[1905: lines 2 and 5 indented]

This, then, was the Bushido teaching--Bear and face all calamities and adversities with patience and a pure conscience; for as Mencius taught, "When Heaven is about to confer a great office on anyone, it first exercises his mind with suffering and his sinews and bones with toil; it exposes his body to hunger and subjects him to extreme poverty; and it confounds his undertakings. In all these ways it stimulates his mind, hardens his nature, and supplies his incompetencies." True honor lies in fulfilling Heaven's decree and no death incurred in so doing is ignominious, whereas death [1905: whereas, death] to avoid what Heaven has in store is cowardly indeed! In that quaint book of Sir Thomas Browne's, Religio Medici , there is an exact English equivalent for what is repeatedly taught in our Precepts. Let me quote it: "It is a brave act of valor to contemn death, but where life is more terrible than death, it is then the truest valor to dare to live." A renowned priest of the seventeenth century satirically observed--"Talk as he may, a samurai who ne'er has died is apt in decisive moments to flee or hide." Again--"Him who once has died in the bottom of his breast, no spears of Sanada nor all the arrows of Tametomo can pierce." How near we come to the portals of the temple whose Builder taught "He that loseth his life for my sake shall find it"! This is but one of [1905: These are but a few of] the numerous examples that tend to confirm the moral identity of the human species, notwithstanding an attempt so assiduously made to render the distinction between Christian and Pagan as great as possible.

We have thus seen that the Bushido institution of suicide was neither so irrational nor barbarous as its abuse strikes us at first sight. We will now see whether its sister institution of Revenge [1905: Redress--or call it Revenge, if you will--] has its mitigating features. I hope I can dispose of this question in a few words, since a similar institution, or call it custom, as you will, [1905: or call it custom, if that suits you better,] prevailed among all peoples and has not yet become entirely obsolete, as attested by the continuance of duelling and lynching. Why, has not an American captain recently challenged Esterhazy, that the wrongs of Dreyfus be avenged? Among a savage tribe which has no marriage, adultery is not a sin, and only the jealousy of a lover protects a woman from abuse: [1905: abuse;] so in a time which has no criminal court, murder is not a crime, and only the vigilant vengeance of the victim's people preserves social order. "What is the most beautiful thing on earth?" said Osiris to Horus. The reply was, "To avenge a parent's wrongs,"--to which a Japanese would have added "and a master's."

In revenge there is something which satisfies one's sense of justice. The avenger reasons:--"My good father did not deserve death. He who killed him did great evil. My father, if he were alive, would not tolerate a deed like this: Heaven itself hates wrong-doing. It is the will of my father; it is the will of Heaven that the evil-doer cease from his work. He must perish by my hand: [1905: hand;] because he shed my father's blood, I, who am his flesh and blood, must shed the murderer's. The same Heaven shall not shelter him and me." The ratiocination is simple and childish, but [1905: simple and childish (though we know Hamlet did not reason much more deeply); nevertheless] it shows an innate sense of exact balance and equal justice "An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth." Our sense of revenge is as exact as our mathematical faculty, and until both terms of the equation are satisfied we cannot get over the sense of something undone. [1905: something left undone.]

In Judaism, which believed in a vengeful [1905: jealous] God, or in Greek thought [1905: Greek mythology], which provided a Nemesis, vengeance may be left to super-human agencies; but common sense furnished Bushido with the institution of revenge [1905: redress] as a kind of ethical court of equity, where people could take cases not to be judged in accordance with ordinary law. The master of the forty-seven Ronins was condemned to death: [1905: death;] he had no court of higher instance to appeal to; his faithful retainers addressed themselves to Vengeance, the only Supreme Court existing; they in their turn were condemned by common law,--but [1905: but the popular instinct passed a different judgment, and hence] their memory is still kept as green and fragrant as are their graves at Sengakuji to this day.

Though Lao-tse [1905: Lâo-tse] taught to recompense injury with kindness, the voice of Confucius was very much louder, which taught that injury must be recompensed with justice;--and yet revenge was justified only when it was undertaken in behalf of our superiors and benefactors. One's own wrongs, including injuries done to wife and children, were to be borne and forgiven. A Samurai [1905: samurai] could therefore fully sympathize with Hannibal's oath to avenge his country's wrongs, but he scorns James Hamilton for wearing in his girdle a handful of earth from his wife's grave, as an eternal incentive to avenge her wrongs on the Regent Murray.

Both of these institutions of suicide and redress lost their raison d'être at the promulgation of the criminal code [1905: the Criminal Code]. No more do we hear of romantic adventures of a fair maiden as she tracks in disguise the murderer of her parent. No more can we witness tragedies of family vendetta enacted. The knight errantry of Miyamoto Musashi is now a tale of the past. The well-ordered police spies out the criminal for the injured party and the law metes out justice. The whole state and society will see that wrong is righted. The sense of justice satisfied, there is no need of Kataki-uchi. [1905: kataki-uchi.] If this had meant that "hunger of the heart which feeds upon the hope of glutting that hunger with the life blood of the victim," as a New England divine has described it, a few paragraphs in the Criminal Code would not so entirely have made an end of it.-- [1905: an end of it.]

As to seppuku, though it too has no existence de jure, we still hear of it from time to time, and shall continue to hear, I am afraid, as long as the past is remembered. Many painless and time-saving methods of self-immolation will come in vogue, as its votaries are increasing with fearful rapidity throughout the world, [1905: world;] but Professor Morselli will have to concede to seppuku an aristocratic position among them. He maintains that "when suicide is accomplished by very painful means or at the cost of prolonged agony, in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred, it may be assigned as the act of a mind disordered by fanaticism, by madness, or by morbid excitement." But a normal seppuku does not savor of fanaticism, or madness or excitement, utmost sang froid being necessary to its successful accomplishment. Of the two kinds into which Dr. Strahan divides suicide, the Rational or Quasi, and the Irrational or True, seppuku is the best example of the former type.

From these bloody institutions, as well as from the general tenor of Bushido, it is easy to infer that the sword played an important part in social discipline and life. The saying passed as an axiom which called [1905: an axiom which called the sword the soul of the samurai.]  << continue >>


The title is one of two chapter headings that were significantly altered in the revised edition (the other is Chapter VIII, where "truthfulness" becomes "sincerity"). Perhaps "redress" was judged to carry a stronger implication of justice (or justification) than did "revenge."

Few other actions of the samurai have made as strong an impression upon Western readers as the practice of seppuku, or ritual disembowelment.

Julius Caesar 5.3.106-107. The historical Marcus Junius Brutus (85-42 BC) was one of the Roman senators who conspired to assassinate Julius Caesar. He committed suicide after his defeat in the Battle of Philippi at the hands of Octavian and Marcus Antonius.

Edwin Arnold (1832-1904) was a British journalist and poet who published The Light of Asia, a long narrative poem on the life of the Buddha, in 1879. A full online version is available here.

Guercino (Giovanni Francesco Barbieri, 1591-1666) was an Italian painter known for altarpieces and ceiling frescoes as well as for his portraits. Guercino is also called "Il Guercino" ("The Squinting One") because of his cross-eye. Guercino's King David sold at Christie's in 2010 for 4.6 million pounds.

Cato the Younger (Marcus Porcius Cato Uticensis, 95-46 BC) was a Roman statesman and orator known for his integrity and opposition to Julius Caesar. He committed suicide in Utica (in modern Tunisia) after fleeing there. Cato's death is described in Plutarch's Parallel Lives. The version from Bill Thayer's Website at the University of Chicago runs as follows:

...Cato drew his sword from its sheath and stabbed himself below the breast. His thrust, however, was somewhat feeble, owing to the inflammation in his hand, and so he did not at once dispatch himself, but in his death struggle fell from the couch and made a loud noise by overturning a geometrical abacus that stood near. His servants heard the noise and cried out, and his son at once ran in, together with his friends. They saw that he was smeared with blood, and that most of his bowels were protruding, but that he still had his eyes open and was alive; and they were terribly shocked. But the physician went to him and tried to replace his bowels, which remained uninjured, and to sew up the wound. Accordingly, when Cato recovered and became aware of this, he pushed the physician away, tore his bowels with his hands, rent the wound still more, and so died.


The former palace, now an art gallery, is properly known as Palazzo Rosso.

The English essayist, playwright, and politician Joseph Addison (1672-1719) wrote the play Cato: A Tragedy in 1712 (first performance the following year). The play deals with Cato's final days and represents him as the apotheosis of Republican virtue.

A reference to the Cross of the Crucifixion and the self-sacrificing death of Christ. Constantine (also called Constantine the Great, Constantine I, or Saint Constantine, c. 274-337) was the first Christian emperor of the Roman Empire. He made Christianity the empire's state religion in 324, and in 330 moved his capital to Byzantium (modern Istanbul).

Genesis 23:30.

Psalms 26:6.

In Isaiah 63:15, which says, "Look down from heaven, and behold from the habitation of thy holiness and of thy glory: where is thy zeal and thy strength, the sounding of thy bowels and of thy mercies toward me? are they restrained?" (King James Version)

In Jeremiah 31:20, which says, "Is Ephraim my dear son? is he a pleasant child? for since I spake against him, I do earnestly remember him still: therefore my bowels are troubled for him; I will surely have mercy upon him, saith the LORD." (King James Version)

René Descartes (1596-1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist who held that everything was open to question except the existence of consciousness. He is the originator of the famous axiom "I think, therefore I am." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy has an entry on Descartes.

Romeo and Juliet 3.3.115-16. This is when the despairing Romeo threatens to commit suicide with his dagger in Friar Laurence's cell.

Samuel Garth (1661–1719) was an English physician and poet. The quotation comes from his long satirical poem The Dispensary (1699), lines 321-322. An ebook of the poem is available from Google Books.

Cato the Younger (Marcus Porcius Cato Uticensis, 95-46 BC) was a Roman statesman and orator known for his integrity and opposition to Julius Caesar. He committed suicide in Utica (in modern Tunisia) after fleeing there.

Marcus Junius Brutus (85-42 BC) was one of the Roman senators who conspired to assassinate Julius Caesar. He committed suicide after his defeat in the Battle of Philippi at the hands of Octavian and Marcus Antonius.

Petronius (Gaius Petronius Arbiter, c. 27–66) was a Roman writer appointed by Nero (37-68) as his arbiter of taste (hence "Arbiter"). He committed suicide after was falsely accused of plotting the death of the emperor.

A reference to the ancient Greek philosopher Socrates (469-399 BC), whose ideas are known to us through the writings of his disciple Plato (c. 429-c. 347 BC). Socrates was forced to commit suicide based on the charges of introducing strange gods and corrupting the youth of Athens.

A.B. Mitford (Algernon Bertram Freeman-Mitford, 1837-1916) was a British diplomat who, after serving in China, was transferred to Japan in 1866 and returned to Britain in 1870. He published Tales of Old Japan -- which included the story of the 47 Rōnin -- in 1871.

Taki Zenzaburō (1837-1868) was a samurai of the Okayama domain about whom little is known other than he took part in the Kobe Incident of January 11, 1868, which began with an attack on a French sailor who had walked through a formation of Japanese samurai. The central part of the city of Kobe was occupied by foreign forces as a result, and to resolve the situation the newly established Meiji government (which four days after the attack officially announced to the foreign powers the restoration of imperial rule) called Taki to account and forced him to commit suicide on February 9.

Seated himself--that is, in the Japanese fashion, his knees and toes touching the ground and his body resting on his heels. In this position, which is one of respect, he remained until his death. [Nitobe's note]

The source of the following story has not yet been identified.

The percentage charged when one currency is exchanged for another; exchange rate.

Dante (Dante Alighieri, 1265-1321) was an Italian poet and the author of The Divine Comedy (c. 1309-1320), in which he traces his spiritual journey through the three stages of Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise. The Inferno (Hell) contains nine circles, the seventh of which is reserved for the violent. The souls of suicides, consigned to the second ring of this circle, are encased in trees (the Wood of Suicides) and must endure being torn apart by harpies.

Marcus Junius Brutus (85-42 BC) was one of the Roman senators who conspired to assassinate Julius Caesar. He committed suicide after his defeat in the Battle of Philippi at the hands of Octavian and Marcus Antonius.

Translators of Bushido into Japanese such as Naramoto Tatsuya note that this poem is attributed to a general named Yamanaka Shikanosuke (actual name Yamanaka Yukimori, 1540-1578) in the service of the daimyo of the Izumo domain, Amako Yoshihisa (d. 1610). Following his lord's defeat by Mōri Motonari (1497-1571) in 1566, Yamanaka served with Toyotomi Hideyoshi but was captured by Mōri forces after unsuccessfully defending Kōzuki Castle (in what is now western Hyogo Prefecture) and killed while being transported to Mōri as a prisoner. In light of this fate, the connection with suicide is unclear. Perhaps Nitobe was relying on a source that reported a different outcome.

I use Dr. Legge's translation verbatim. [Nitobe's note] The source is Mencius 6B15.

Thomas Browne (1605-1682 ) was an English physician and writer who practiced medicine in the city of Norwich. His Religio Medici (The Religion of a Physician, 1643), which was extremely popular in its time, is a spiritual autobiography of sorts interlaced with digressions on numerous topics. The quotation is taken from Section 43. Both the first edition of 1643 (HTML) and the second edition of 1645 (PDF) can be viewed at a site at the University of Chicago maintained by James Eason.

Satō Masahiro, in his Japanese translation of Bushido, identifies the priest as the Tendai Buddhist monk Tenkai (1536-1643), but he provides no source for the quotations.

Sanada Yukimura (1567-1615) and Minamoto no Tametomo (1139-1170) were samurai renowned for their skill with the pike and the bow, respectively. The former fought against Tokugawa Ieyasu and died in the Siege of Osaka, while the latter -- an uncle of Minamoto no Yoritomo -- sided with Retired Emperor Sutoku in the Hōgen Disturbance (1156), was exiled to Izu Ōshima after his defeat, and committed suicide when he later came under attack there for insurrection.

Matthew 10:39.

The identity of this American captain is unclear. Alfred Dreyfus (1859-1935) was a French army officer of Jewish descent who in 1894 was falsely convicted of selling secrets to Germany. Reconvicted in 1899, he was finally exonerated of all charges in 1906. Marie Charles Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy (1847-1923) was the French officer who eventually confessed to the crime. A clear, concise summary of the Dreyfus Affair is contained in the Columbia Encyclopedia.

A reference to the Egyptian myth in which Horus, son of Osirus, avenges the murder of his father at the hands of Horus's uncle, Seth. The dead Osirus apparently asks this question after reassuming living form and appearing to his son.

The phrase appears in three books of the Old Testament: Exodus 21:24, Leviticus 24:20, and Deuteronomy 19:21. The passage from Exodus 21:22-25 runs as follows:

If men strive, and hurt a woman with child, so that her fruit depart from her, and yet no mischief follow: he shall be surely punished, according as the woman's husband will lay upon him; and he shall pay as the judges determine. / And if any mischief follow, then thou shalt give life for life, / Eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, / Burning for burning, wound for wound, stripe for stripe.


Asano Naganori (1667-1701), daimyo of the Akō domain, who in the Third Month of 1701 was forced to commit suicide for attempting to kill Kira Yoshinaka (1641-1702) in a corridor of Edo Castle. At the end of 1702 (corresponding to January 1703 under the Western calendar), 47 of Asano's retainers avenged their lord's death by attacking and killing Kira at his residence in Edo, after which they carried Kira's severed head to offer before Asano's grave at Sengakuji Temple, in present-day Minato Ward, Tokyo. The retainers (with the exception of one, who may have fled or may have been excluded because of his low rank) were ordered to commit seppuku, and their ashes were also buried at Sengakuji.

Laozi (Lao Tse or, in Japanese, Rōshi; traditionally 6th century BC) was the ancient Chinese philosopher traditionally considered to be the founder of Taoism. Nitobe appears to be quoting Section 63 of the Tao Te Ching (or simply the Laozi), which says (in Legge's translation), "(It is the way of the Tao) to act without (thinking of) acting; to conduct affairs without (feeling the) trouble of them; to taste without discerning any flavour; to consider what is small as great, and a few as many; and to recompense injury with kindness."

Section 49.2 expresses a similar attitude: "To those who are good (to me), I am good; and to those who are not good (to me), I am also good; - and thus (all) get to be good."

Analects 14:36 reads as follows (in Legge's translation):

Some one said, 'What do you say concerning the principle that injury should be recompensed with kindness?' The Master said, 'With what then will you recompense kindness? 'Recompense injury with justice, and recompense kindness with kindness.'


Hannibal (247-182 BC) was a Carthaginian general who famously attacked Italy by crossing the Alps in the Second Punic War (218-201 BC). He is said to have sworn his oath to his father before the two left Sicily for Iberia in 237 BC.

James Hamilton (d. 1581) was a Scottish supporter of Mary, Queen of Scots (1542-1587), who assassinated James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray (regent of the infant James VI of Scotland). The motivation actually appears to have been more political than personal in nature, although the legend of the ghosts of Hamilton's wife and child is told in a book by John Ingram called The Haunted Homes and Family Traditions of Great Britain (1897). The book is available from the Internet Archive, and the content  is summarized online at Mysterious Britain and Ireland ("Murray" is a variant spelling of "Moray"). Nitobe's source for the story is unclear.

The Code of Criminal Instruction was promulgated in 1880, along with the Penal Code.

Miyamoto Musashi (1584-1645) was a swordsman of the early Edo period who developed the "two-sword style" (nitō-ryū or niten'ichi-ryū) of swordsmanship. He also wrote The Book of Five Rings (Gorin no sho, c. 1644), and thanks to novels, films, and television, he may be the best-known Japanese swordsman (kenkaku) in history.

The identity of this New England divine is unknown.

Morselli, Suicide, p. 314. [Nitobe's note] Enrico Augostino Morselli (1852-1929) was an Italian physician and professor at the University of Turin. The full title of his book (an English abridgment of the Italian original) is Suicide: An Essay on Comparative Moral Statistics (New York: Appleton, 1882). A digitized copy of the first edition is available from the Internet Archive. The quotation comes from Chapter VIII ("Methods and Places of Suicide"), Section 1 ("General Laws in the Choice of Means of Death"), pp. 314-315.

Suicide and Insanity. [Nitobe's note] S.A.K. (Samuel Alexander Kenny) Strahan, d. 1902, was a British barrister who published Suicide and Insanity: A Physiological and Sociological Study in 1893 (London: S. Sonnenschein & Co.), available from the Internet Archive. Strahan discusses the two types of suicide in Chapter II ("What Suicide Really Means"), summarizing his terms on p. 32 of the cited edition.